Menu

Publications

On the Path to Sustainable Development: Green Mini-Grids and Our Energy Future

Abstract


The concept of mini-grids has been around for decades. Mini-grids have been advocated by development scholars and energy specialists as a viable means for increasing access to energy in a bid to increase economic activities and promote economic development. Especially in African countries where the rural populations with access to stable modern electricity on average is less than 5%, mini-grids can play an important role in developing localised energy systems to promote sustainable development. Over other forms of mini-grids, green mini-grids (GMGs) by their structure and design present a compelling case for preference. GMGs can be situated at any point in localised areas since they utilize solar energy. Additionally, in generating electricity to power dispersed communities, GMGs can also feed excess electricity into the national grid – when appropriate agreements to allow for this are in place. Importantly, by operating GMGs African countries can help to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases known to be responsible for climate change, while reaping the economic benefits of having stable modern electricity. In most African countries, the rural populations surpass the population of urban dwellers. By generating electricity for economic activities, GMGs can help to energize rural economies to the point where these economies operate in their full economic potential. Essentially, African countries can plot their paths to sustainable development by promoting GMGs within rural areas. However, despite the clear benefits, a host of challenges surrounding energy planning and development has prevented the widespread promotion of GMGs in Africa. Some of these challenges include financial impediments, the lack of appropriate policy and regulatory structures as well as a lack of appropriate business models to deliver GMG projects. Additionally, some perceptions of technological failures leading to a negative bias for GMG development and the absence of adequate data to map the energy needs of dispersed rural communities contribute largely to obscure the benefits of GMGs

Key words: Green mini-grids, sustainable development, finance, policy, Africa

Read more...

Engineering Design Capacity for Sustainable Competitiveness in Africa: The Case of Tanzania, East Africa

Eng. Dr. L.J.Kerefu and J. Z. Machuve


Abstract
Engineering is vital to addressing basic human needs, improving the quality of life and creating opportunities for sustainable prosperity on a local, regional, national and global level. However, Africa faces a shortage of engineers arising from declining interest and enrolment of young people in the relevant disciplines at higher education level. Africa is also flooded with numerous products from the five major emerging economies Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, creating challenges to local engineering solutions. In this sense, engineering design capacity practice needs to be reviewed for the purpose of creating the potential for the application of local competitive engineering capacity for growth.  This suggests a need for the upgrading and integration of local engineering design capacity into the mainstream, beginning with the education system. Empirical evidence from Tanzania lends support to this proposition. Primary data from university undergraduates suggest a strong focus on curricular review of engineering design capacity in Tanzania. Review of engineering design functions practiced by industries and engineering based R&D institutions indicates skills mismatch which need to be addressed. This holds important policy implications. In particular, the tertiary education curriculum must be sensitive to the local needs and knowledge.

 

Keywords: Engineering, Engineering design capacity, Knowledge, Curriculum


Jel code: O55,D24,D83, J10, J18, J24

Read more...

South African Capability in High Technology: An assessment from USPTO data

Swapan Kumar Patra* and Mammo Muchie**

Abstract
Post-apartheid South African Government had realized the role of technology and innovation for national development. The science and technology based industries are being considered as priority areas. Using the analytical framework of Technological Capability and Network analysis, this paper is an attempt to assess the national capability building in high technology. Patents granted to South African inventors in ICT and Biotechnology industries are considered to measure the technological capability. The patents granted in USPTO during 1970-2014 shows that in recent years there is certainly an increase in patenting activity of South African entities. However, a clear and significant trend is yet to emerge. The study further isolated the high technology patents based on the OECD suggested IPC codes. Among the total 5,264 granted patents about 1,100 are considered as the high technology patents. These high technology patents are grouped into three categories. The categories are South African entity assigned patents (530 patents) foreign entities assigned patents (456 patents) and individually assigned (220 patents) patents. In ICT industry maximum patents was granted in Computers and office machinery and in Biotechnology maximum patents are granted in Medicinal and bioengineering areas related to microorganisms. Amazon Technologies Inc, (34 patents) is the most prolific patentee followed by CSIR, (28 patents). Recently, most of the high technology patents are granted as joint patents. This shows an increasing collaboration among SA and foreign entities. In terms of collaboration, Amazon Technologies Inc, is the most prominent actor among the foreign firms and University of Cape Town, is the most prominent among the SA institutes. The collaboration map shows that the collaborative patents are only among a few institutes. There is scope for indigenous entities to learn and elevate along the value chain. The study concludes with relevant policy lessons regarding the increasing foreign R&D in SA.


Keywords: Technological Capability, Patents, South Africa, S&T Policies

 

* Swapan Kumar Patra: Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

** Mammo Muchie: DST/NRF Research Professor, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, ASTU, Ethiopia and TMDC, Oxford University, UK. Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. & www.sarchi-steid.org.za/

Presented at the African Unity for Renaissance Conference and Africa Day Expo Theme: 2015 and Beyond: Engaging Agenda 2063, Tshwane, 22-25 May, 2015 (paper is under review)

Read more...

Foreign R&D Units in India and China: An Empirical Exploration

Swapan Kumar Patra

 

Abstract

Among the many other corporate activities offshoring of R&D by Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) is considered to be the least mobilized. Firms usually keep their crucial R&D activity close to their home base. However, since 1990’s MNEs from developing countries are offshoring their R&D activity to the developing Asian countries particularly in India and China. This study trace the growth of foreign R&D units in India, the location of R&D units and the major motives of foreign firms to choose India and China as the favorable R&D destinations. Study observed that there was a significant growth of new R&D units in the last decades. Firms’ prefers R&D locations in India where there are knowledge hubs in terms of educational institutes and trained manpower. The major motives of firms to prefer India and China are mainly ‘market driven’ and ‘technology driven’.    

JEL Classification Code: O32, F23

Keywords: Multinational Enterprises, Foreign R&D, India, China

 * Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The full paper is submitted to African Journal of Science Technology Innovation and Development in the Special Issue on various issues of BRICS Countries

Read more...

Science and Technological Capability Building in Global South: Comparative study of India and South Africa

Swapan Kumar Patra* and Mammo Muchie**


Abstract
Economic success of a nation is highly related to Scientific and technological capability building. Therefore, both industrially developed and developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competency. However, technological capability building cannot be completed in isolation. It is a long term process and requires a country to pass through different phases of learning, infrastructure development, human resources management, and institutions building. This paper analyses Indian and South African scientific and technological capability through the major input (R&D expenditure, manpower) and output indicators (Technology balance of payment, scholarly publication, patents and so on). To measure the technological capability of these two emerging economics, this study uses World Bank data for R&D expenditure and R&D manpower, scientific publication data from Scopus database and patents granted in United States Patent and Trademark office (USPTO) database.  The study observed that in India is ahead of South Africa in some respect but in some areas South Africa’s performance is quite good. The study concludes with the policy recommendation from the developing countries’ particularly the South African perspective which includes the technological learning through the increasing collaboration between foreign firms and the local firms or institutions.


Keywords: Technological Capability, Scientometrics, Bibliometrics, Patents, India, South Africa  


* Swapan Kumar Patra: Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

** Mammo Muchie: DST/NRF Research Professor, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, ASTU, Ethiopia and TMDC, Oxford University, UK. Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. & www.sarchi-steid.org.za/

Innovation Research for Integrated African Development: Colloquium for Journal and Book Publication, (9th -11th March 2016) Tshwane, Pretoria, South Africa (paper is under review for the forthcoming book chapter)

Read more...

Engineering Research Profile of Countries in African Union

Swapan Kumar Patra* and Mammo Muchie**


Abstract
This paper maps the scholarly publication output of engineering research from the member countries of African Union (AU) based on publication data from the Scopus database of Elsevier. The countries are ranked based on various parameters, like number of publications, activity index, citations received. The collaboration profiles of the countries are mapped using Social Network Analysis (SNA) tools. The results show that the engineering research publications are increasing in Africa in an exponential rate. However the engineering research is not the main research focus because the indicators, like Activity index, Relative Specialization Index show an overall negative productivity. The research focus of these countries may be in some other areas. Above all, the output is still low in global setting. However, the coverage of African scholarly publication in global citation databases is quite low because of the peripheral nature of the science in these countries. There are many publications which are not included in these databases. So, Africa based citation index, exclusively covering scholarly research from the continent will perhaps give a better picture of the reality. Papers form these countries have received quite good number of citations. So it is quite sure that African engineering research has significant impact on the global science. In terms of collaboration, South Africa is the major collaborator and have good impact in global as well as within African collaboration. However there are further scopes of collaborations among African countries. The policy recommendations include more focused research in engineering disciplines and more collaboration among AU member countries.  

Keywords: Bibliometrics, Scientometrics, Network Analysis, Engineering Research, Africa, Activity index, Relative Specialization Index

* Swapan Kumar Patra: Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

**Mammo Muchie: DST/NRF Research Professor, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, ASTU, Ethiopia and TMDC, Oxford University, UK. Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. & www.sarchi-steid.org.za/

Earlier version of this paper was presented at Engineering Design Capacity Building and Economic Development in Africa at the Africalics'15 conference held at, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda, on 20th November 2015. The full paper is submitted to African Journal of Science Technology Innovation and Development in the Special Issue on Engineering Design.

Read more...

Scientific and Technical Productivity of African countries: What Scopus and USPTO data tell us?

Swapan Kumar Patra* and Mammo Muchie**

Abstract

This study maps the scientific publication and patenting activity of the member countries of African Union using standard Scientometrics indicators. Many previous studies try to map the scientific productivity of the African scholar using single indicator for example using data from Web of Science (WoS). However WoS has limited coverage in terms of number of journals. Moreover, the coverage of African scientific journals in this citation database is very limited. So, there is certainly a gap in understanding of the actual nature of African science and technology. To fill this void this study will be a timely effort to comprehend the scientific and technical productivity of African Union. This study use Scopus data because of the extensive coverage of Scopus in the global as well as African scholarly literature. This study traces the literature growth and citation pattern of African countries. Beside the literature data, this study also maps the patenting of African countries using data from United States Patent and Trademark (USPTO) office. The outcome and the recommendations of this study will certainly be useful for scholars, policy and decision makers in the governments of the member states of African Union.

Keywords: Science in Africa, Bibliometrics, Scientometrics, Citation Analysis, Patent


*Swapan Kumar Patra: Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

**Mammo Muchie: DST/NRF Research Professor, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, ASTU, Ethiopia and TMDC, Oxford University, UK.
Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. & www.sarchi-steid.org.za/

Paper presented at the 6th African Unity for Renaissance Conference Pretoria, South Africa (22nd -25th May, 2016). Tshwane, Pretoria, South Africa (under review for a forthcoming book chapter)

Read more...

Research and Innovation in South African Universities

Swapan Kumar Patra* and Mammo Muchie**

Abstract
This study maps the research and innovation in South African universities within the triple-helix framework. To map the R&D activities of South African universities, patent and publications data are used as an output indicator. The study observed that universities are the most prolific publisher and constitute about 91 percent of total South African publications. However, universities altogether produce only about 14 percent of total South African patents. Productivity is mainly concentrated in Western Cape and Gauteng provinces because of the location of public research institutes and productive universities. For example University of Pretoria and University of Witwatersrand in Gauteng and University of Cape Town and University of Stellenbosch in Western Cape Provinces. Only a few universities are responsible for both patenting and publication portfolio of South Africa. The joint patent trends shows that only about 19 percent patents are collaborative patents. South African public research institutes are more active in joint patents with universities followed by the foreign universities. South African firms are less active in collaborative patents. The study recommends that university and local firms’ collaboration need to be strengthen to develop technological capabilities in South Africa. Also, the regional disparities in productivity need further attention. To achieve the ‘entrepreneurial university’ in terms of patents and technology transfer South African universities need to collaborate more with the local industries or institutes. Further studies will perhaps give a clear picture of technology transfer and the universities incurred benefits from it.

 

* Swapan Kumar Patra: Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

** Mammo Muchie: DST/NRF Research Professor, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, ASTU, Ethiopia and TMDC, Oxford University, UK. Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. & www.sarchi-steid.org.za/

The paper is accepted in 14th Globelics International Conference (12th – 14th October 2016) scheduled to be held in Bandung, Indonesia.

Read more...

What Can South Africa Learn from High Technology Patents in India: An Analysis of Biotechnology Patents through USPTO

Swapan Kumar Patra* and Mammo Muchie**

Abstract
Economic success of a nation is highly related to technological capability building. Therefore, both industrially developed and developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competency. However, technological capability building cannot be understood simply as the sum of firm level technological capabilities developed in isolation. It is a long term process and requires a country to pass through different phases of learning, infrastructure development, human resources management, and institutions building. This paper analyses Indian and South African technological capability building in high technology industry taking Biotechnology patents as a case study. To measure the technological capability in biotechnology, this study uses patents granted in United States Patent (USPTO) office as a proxy indicator. The study traces the origin and the growth of patents in USPTO since the early 1970’s. It is observed that there is substantial growth of Indian patents after the economic liberalization. This sizable number of high technology patenting from India is due to the opening up of the economy and recent surge of R&D activities of foreign firms in India. Also, it shows the Indian firms and R&D labs increased their strength in this sector over the years. The collaboration pattern shows that Indian assignee owned patents are more collaborative than the foreign assignee owned patents. Although, the foreign entities collaborate, but their collaboration mainly restrict among their R&D units in India, and either with their head quarter or subsidiaries located elsewhere.  The study concludes with the policy recommendation from the developing countries’ particularly the South African perspective which includes the technological learning through the increasing collaboration between foreign firms and the local firms or institutions.
Keywords: Technological Capability, India, South Africa, Biotechnology Patents,

* Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

** Mammo Muchie: DST/NRF Research Professor, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, ASTU, Ethiopia and TMDC, Oxford University, UK. Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. & www.sarchi-steid.org.za/

The paper has been presented in Mapungubwe Institute of Strategic Reflection (Mistra) Colloquium beyond the Imagination: Genetics, Nano and biotechnologies and their applications, during October 13, 2015, Midrand, South Africa (for forthcoming book chapter, paper is under review)

Read more...

Agroforestry Technologies in Livelihood Improvement in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Abstract
Conventional rural livelihood analyses often neglect the role of environmental products in general and forest and agoforestry (AF) products in particular. Using log linear regression model (LRM) in a cross-sectional data collected from a sample of 300 households, this study explores the likely impact of AF technologies in promoting the livelihood of rural communities in the study areas. Results obtained from multiple linear regression analysis showed that average household income increased as a function of utilization of AF technologies.These findings have policy implications in promoting integrated rural development in the Eastern Cape Province.
 
Keywords: Agroforestry;Food Security,Livelihood,Log linear regression model

 

Read more...

Conceptualising innovation management development through organisational learning in the public service: any lessons for developing states?

 Most public service managers and professionals spend most of their time dealing with the day-to-day pressures of delivering services, operating and reporting to senior managers, legislators and agencies. They have little or no time to think about innovation, which would ease the pressures and burdens of service delivery. The intention of this paper is to point out the fact that capacity building is the bedrock of new public management development.

Read more...

Management of design and innovation for sustainable development of South Africa handicraft sector

In the South African handicraft sector, there is hardly any significance on the research and development of designs and product innovation. This study focuses on the possibility of innovative craft-design to aid in the economic development of the local community, and more specifically the development of the creative industry. The paper shows key findings from a literature review and from semi-structured interviews with local producers, supporters, and buyers of handicraft product in Western Cape Province.

Read more...

What Can South Africa Learn from High Technology Patents in India: An Analysis of ICT and Biotechnology Industry through USPTO

Economic success of a nation is highly related to technological capability building. Therefore, both industrially developed and developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competency. However, technological capability building is cannot be understood simply in terms of the sum of firm level technological capabilities developed in isolation. It is a long term process and requires a country to pass through different phases of learning, infrastructure development, human resources management, and institutions building.

Read more...

South African Competency in High Technology: An exploration of patents granted in USPTO to South African Inventors

In the post-apartheid era, new democratically elected South African Government had realized the role of technology and innovation for the national development. The science and technology based industries were considered as the priority area. Using the analytical framework of Technological Capability (TC) and Network analysis, this paper is an attempt to assess the national capability building in the high technology areas. Patents granted to South African inventors in ICT and Biotechnology industries are considered to measure the TC of South Africa in high technology areas.

Read more...

Solar Seawater Distiller Turns Salt Water into Drinking Water Using Only Sunlight

A genius yet very simple way to produce healthy, bacteria-free water.

Italian designer Gabriele Diamanti (@GabDiamanti) has invented Eliodomestico, an eco-distiller running on solar power, to provide safe drinking-water for people in developing countries: a very simple way to produce healthy, bacteria-free water. Eliodomestico is an open source project.

Read more...

The African Network for Solar Energy – ANSOLE

The idea to create a network on solar energy was born during a conference in Sousse, Tunisia in November 2010. The African Network for Solar Energy (ANSOLE) was officially launched in Linz, Austria in February 2011, thus it will celebrate its 5th anniversary next year in February. A conference commemorating this event is planned from the 3rd to the 6th of February 2016 in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

Read more...

For AU Agenda 2063, think agenda now now

The drama of the ICC’s determination to arrest Sudan’s president Omar Al Bashir manifested itself exactly three weeks after the commemoration of this year’s Africa Day. That fact epitomises the thorny, rocky road Africa’s renewal will have to go through. I am still basking in the after-glow of this year’s Africa Day commemorations, which was my first time to actually actively be a part of.

Read more...

Informal Sector Innovations: Insights from the Global South

It is well documented that the space of informal economic activity is rising across the globe. This rise has been particularly significant in the least developed and developing countries, especially after the onset of neo-liberal policies and withdrawal of welfare state. There has also been a shift in academic thinking on informal sector, with attempts being made to understand the contribution of informal sector in generating employment and economic growth rather than focusing solely on exploitative labour conditions in these economic activities.

Read more...

Pan-Africanism needs Ethiopianism

Welcome to my new column in which as a Pan-Africanist to the bone, I will intentionally try to provoke debate on many issues regarding why Africans must choose Pan-Africanism as the only highway towards unshackling Lingering colonial mentalities and their offshoots. How better to begin than with a discussion on the precursor to Pan-Africanism – Ethiopianism.

Read more...

Remembering Garissa Students, Kenya and Condemning Xenophobia

Inspiration
What makes 1994 a unique historical milestone is that war was replaced by peace; and reconciliation replaced conflict. The ‘Rainbow nation of God’ was born according to Bishop Desmond Tutu! South Africa has now a morally radiant and intelligent global brand for ending with peace and reconciliation that all in the whole world believed could not have ended without war and protracted fighting. (www.tut.ac.za).

Read more...

Putting Africa First: The Making of African Innovation Systems

Putting Africa first: the making of African innovation systems was published at a time when African governments came together to form a Partnership for Africa’s Development, NEPAD, committing to bringing about an African Renaissance. The debate in the literature at the time was on whether following advanced countries in developing science, technology and innovation would be appropriate for Africa considering the lack of infrastructure – including basic infrastructure – weak institutions and weak linkages between actors.

The book puts forward the premise that a systems of innovation approach that is based on indigenous knowledge and capabilities may in fact be the most appropriate approach for achieving sustainable development in Africa as it places emphasis on learning and competence building. It thus provides the tools for the structural transformation necessary for economic and social development in the region. The premise is that the approach should be context sensitive, taking into account local and regional specificities.

 

Read more

Read more...

A rich resource book about Africa

The Making of the Africa-Nation: Pan-Africanism and the African Renaissance is a rich resource book on the teething problems affecting Africa on how they can be remedied. Its resourcefulness comes from the array of contributors with varying academic and historical backgrounds. However, the overarching thrust of the book is centred on unity that the contributors unanimously agree is an essential ingredient towards the transformation of the continent from is present sorry state.

 

Read more

 

Read more...

Private–Public Partnerships in Managing Science and Technology Innovation

Presentation done at the IN4iN Africa Conference, November 3 - 4, 2014, Adama, Ethiopia

INSPIRATION
Economic leadership in particular must be distinguished from invention. As long as they are not carried into practice,  invention are economically irrelevant.  And to carry any improvement into effect is a task entirely different from investing in it, and a task requiring, moreover, different types of aptitudes.(Schumpter, The Theory of Economic Development , 1936, p.88)

For full presentation visit

Read more...

Africa: The origin of Humanity, values and knowledge

Africa is the cradle of humanity. Civilisation, astronomy, science, mathematics and philosophy originated from Africa. There is a real challenge for Africans to understand that the difficult today and tomorrow can be transformed into a beautiful after tomorrow if Africans are prepared to look back to the deep and rich cultural contributions made by the ancestors to help mend the current social-economic reality that remains intoxicated with the colonial cultural liquor failing to protect Africa from pervasive Western cultural repenetration. Africa continues to be penetrable rather than being the real provider of its rich values and culture to liberate not only Africa but also redeem and save all humanity.


Read more in the The African Academy of Sciences Newsletter Vol 18(4) January 2015

Read more...

Celebrating Adwa Victory as the significant African victory over World Empire

INSPIRATION

“Although it had been conquered dozens of times, Ethiopia was the birthplace of African nationalism.” Nelson Mandela, in his Long Walk to Freedom, p.402

“Ethiopia has always held a special place in my own imagination and the prospect of visiting Ethiopia attracted me more strongly than a trip to France, England and America combined. I felt I would be visiting my own genesis, unearthing the roots of what made me an African.” (ibid.)

Read more...

The decision and process of standard-setting in a catch up strategy for latecomer countries: the cases of China and Korea

This paper examines standard-setting process in China in relation with standard-setting processes in Korea to illustrate the key factors and mechanisms affecting catch up in latecomer economies, particularly from the perspective of government decision and support.

Read more...

World Social Science Report 2013: Making sense of techno-optimism? The social science of nanotechnology and sustainability (Pages: 295–299)

world-social-science-reportUsing nanotechnology, scientists can change the atomic configuration of matter. New materials have seemingly magical applications, with promise that ranges from harnessing energy from the sun to eternally recycling materials by breaking them down into their atomic building blocks and reassembling them. It is vital, as UNESCO has urged, that social scientists engage fully in debates on nanoethics, and contribute to policy and decision-making processes concerning the use of nanotechnology in achieving sustainability.
Read more...

South Africa’s Democratic Transition and Transformation from 1994-2014: What difference has it made to date?

This thought-piece was presented initially at the MISTRA-TMALI-UNISA Conference on 20 Years of South African Democracy: So Where to Now?  That was held in November 12-13, 2014 in Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa. The substantial and critical contributions from Ethiopian scholars Abu Girma (now In Japan), Hassan Seid (USA), Minga Negash (USA & SA) and Tesfaye Lemma (USA formerly also in SA) are acknowledged and indeed have been most helpful.

Read more...

A New Business Model for Technology-Based Business Incubators: The Case of Innovation Works in China. No. 2014-009

In recent years China has become the world’s second largest hub of technology-based business incubators (TBIs). The traditional business model of TBIs focuses on providing new ventures with traditional services, such as office, one-stop administrative service and some consulting services.

Read more...
Subscribe to this RSS feed

Publications

Useful Links

Contact Info

210 Steve Biko Street
Pretoria
0001

Tel: +27 12 382 2679
Fax: +27 86 665 4587
Email: info@sarchi.org

About SARChI

Supported & Hosted by